What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs.
See a picture of the
organs inside the pelvis .
Treating PID right away is important,
because PID can cause scar tissue in the pelvic organs and lead to
infertility. It can also lead to other problems, such
pelvic pain and
tubal (ectopic) pregnancy.
What causes PID?
PID is caused by bacteria
entering the reproductive organs through the cervix. When the cervix is
infected, bacteria from the vagina can more easily get into and infect the
uterus and fallopian tubes.
You may be more likely to get PID if
- Have a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
The most common causes of PID are
- Are at risk for STIs. You are
at higher risk for STIs if you are young and you don't use condoms when you
have sex. Having more than one sex partner also increases your risk for
bacterial vaginosis, which is not an
- Have recently had an IUD inserted or had
- Had PID before.
What are the symptoms?
At first, PID may not cause
any symptoms or may cause only mild symptoms, such as bleeding or discharge
from the vagina. Some women don't even know they have it. They only find out
later, when they can't get pregnant or they have
As the infection spreads,
the most common symptom is pain in the lower belly. The pain has been described
as crampy or as a dull and constant ache. It may be worse during sex, bowel
movements, or when you urinate. Some women also have a fever.
How is PID diagnosed?
Even though PID causes mild
or no symptoms, it can still cause serious problems. So you need to understand
what puts you at risk for PID or STIs and see your doctor if you have any
Your doctor will ask about your lifestyle and
symptoms. He or she will examine you and do tests to see if you have PID. The
test results may take some time. For this reason, your doctor will treat you
for the disease before the test results are ready. Treating PID early is
important to prevent problems later on.
Your doctor may test you
for the most common causes of PID and may also do blood tests to look for signs
of infection. Your doctor may also order an
ultrasound to see if there are other possible causes
of your symptoms. An ultrasound may also show if there is damage to the
fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries from PID.
How is it treated?
To treat PID, you will need to
take antibiotics. Take them as directed. If you don't take all of the medicine,
the infection may come back.