Vaginal Discharge: What’s Abnormal?
Vaginal discharge serves an important housekeeping function in the female reproductive system. Fluid made by glands inside the vagina and cervix carries away dead cells and bacteria. This keeps the vagina clean and helps prevent infection.
Most of the time, vaginal discharge is perfectly normal. The amount can vary, as can odor and hue (its color can range from clear to a milky white-ish), depending on the time in your menstrual cycle. For example, there will be more discharge if you are ovulating, breastfeeding, or are sexually aroused. The smell may be different if you are pregnant or you haven't been diligent about your personal hygiene.
None of those changes is cause for alarm. However, if the color, smell, or consistency seems significantly unusual, especially if it accompanied by vaginal itching or burning, you could be noticing an infection or other condition.
What causes abnormal discharge?
Any change in the vagina's balance of normal bacteria can affect the smell, color, or discharge texture. These are a few of the things that can upset that balance:
- Antibiotic or steroid use
- Bacterial vaginosis, a bacterial infection more common in pregnant women or women who have multiple sexual partners
- Birth control pills
- Cervical cancer
Chlamydia or gonorrhea (STDs), sexually transmitted infections
- Douches, scented soaps or lotions, bubble bath
- Pelvic infection after surgery
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Trichomoniasis, a parasitic infection typically contracted and caused by having unprotected sex
- Vaginal atrophy, the thinning and drying out of the vaginal walls during menopause
- Vaginitis, irritation in or around the vagina
See the chart below to learn more about what a particular type of discharge might mean.
Types of Abnormal Discharge and Their Possible Causes
Type of Discharge
What It Might Mean
|Bloody or brown
||Irregular menstrual cycles, or less often, cervical or endometrial cancer
||Abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain
|Cloudy or yellow
||Bleeding between periods, urinary incontinence
|Frothy, yellow or greenish with a bad smell
||Pain and itching while urinating
||Shedding of the uterine lining after childbirth (lochia)
|Thick, white, cheesy
||Swelling and pain around the vulva, itching, painful sexual intercourse
|White, gray, or yellow with fishy odor
||Itching or burning, redness and swelling of the vagina or vulva
How does the doctor diagnose abnormal discharge?
The doctor will start by taking a health history and asking about your symptoms. Questions may include:
- When did the abnormal discharge begin?
- What color is the discharge?
- Is there any smell?
- Do you have any itching, pain, or burning in or around the vagina?
- Do you have more than one sexual partner?
- Do you douche?
The doctor may take a sample of the discharge or do a Pap test to collect cells from your cervix for further examination.
How is abnormal discharge treated?
How you are treated will depend on what’s causing the problem. For example, yeast infections are usually treated with antifungal medications inserted into the vagina in cream or gel form. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotic pills or creams. Trichomoniasis is usually treated with the drug metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax).
Here are some tips for preventing vaginal infections that can lead to abnormal discharge:
- Keep the vagina clean by washing regularly with a gentle, mild soap and warm water.
- Never use scented soaps and feminine products or douche. Also avoid feminine sprays and bubble baths.
- After going to the bathroom, always wipe from front to back to prevent bacteria from getting into the vagina and causing an infection.
- Wear 100% cotton underpants, and avoid overly tight clothing.