The Future of Breast Cancer Screening
An array of high-tech detection techniques and devices is on the scientific horizon.
Toward a Better Image (of Breasts) continued...
Researchers at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire are
simultaneously studying four of these screening techniques: NIR, MIS, EIS, and
MRE. If one or more of these methods are found to be promising, scientists
might look into integrating the technologies into a single tool.
"We're excited about the possibilities, but there's a lot
to be worked out," says Keith Paulsen, PhD, principal investigator of
Dartmouth's Breast Imaging Project.
Clinical trials began April 2003, and may wrap up next summer.
An interim analysis with official statistics on the success of each technique
is due in the next couple of weeks; meantime, Paulsen is optimistic. "The
projects are going well," he says.
Looking Into a Biological Crystal Ball
Several studies are currently looking into the possibility of
diagnosing breast cancer at the cellular level. There is hope that someday
researchers will be able to identify a turning point when biological substances
become cancerous, thus leading to development of methods for detecting warning
The National Cancer Institute alone has funded research into at
least a half-dozen tests that involve examining typical and irregular proteins,
molecules, genes, and other biological matter. One such large clinical trial in
progress is a blood test. By analyzing concealed patterns of protein in blood,
investigators propose being able to distinguish malignant tissues from benign
Although this blood test is currently being tested only for
ovarian cancer, researchers are hopeful the technology, once proven, could be
adapted to other cancers. If everything goes well, investigators plan to
compare the outcome of the trial with other blood test research around the
country of other cancers.
One such study to detect breast cancer by looking at blood
cells has already ended. The results? The blood test was 95% successful in
spotting malignancies. The complete report is currently being reviewed for
publication in a medical journal.
"Everything looks extremely exciting...but we want to move
cautiously," says Lance Liotta, MD, PhD, a principal investigator of the
Clinical Proteomics Program, and chief of the laboratory of pathology at the
National Cancer Institute.
When could such a blood test become available? Liotta says that
depends on three factors:
- First, researchers must check the accuracy of the blood test by waiting to
see if women develop cancer.
- Second, those results must prove the test works reliably in large groups of
- Third, the Food and Drug Administration must approve the test.
If all variables fall into place, however, he says the test could be on the
market within the next 5 years -- unless competing private companies come up
with the technology first.
How Better Screening Helps High-Risk Women
The technology to screen for genetic mutations is already
available, but it is recommended only for women who have reason to believe they
are at high risk for developing breast cancer, such as a strong family