Birth control pills, patches, or
rings and other forms of hormonal birth control.
Having a test that
uses a radioactive substance, such as a
bone scan, within 1 week before the
Medicines, such as clomiphene or steroids
(for example, prednisone).
High levels of sugar in the urine caused
What To Think About
Blood estrogen levels are a more accurate
indicator of how well the ovaries are working than urinary estrogen
Tests that measure blood levels of progesterone,
luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone are often used to study
the problems that can affect fertility and the menstrual cycle. For more
information, see the topics
Luteinizing Hormone, and
In some cases a
combination of screening tests is done in the first trimester to look for
Down syndrome. The first trimester screening often
combines ultrasound measurement of the thickness of the fetus's neck (nuchal
translucency) and measurements of hCG and a protein called pregnancy-associated
plasma protein A to check for problems. For more information, see the topic
Birth Defects Testing.
Fischbach FT, Dunning MB III, eds. (2009).
Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, 8th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (2010). Mosby?s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Wapner RJ, et al. (2009). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital disorders. In RK Creasy et al., eds., Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice, 6th ed., pp. 221-274. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.